During the war, there were a number of suicides and breakout attempts. One of the most violent occurred in the United States, where POW leaders advocated an uprising in the Emperor's name. Several thousand prisoners took part, but it was stopped with minimal casualties. The leaders hanged themselves before capture. Another breakout in Cowra, Australia took weeks to round up all the POWs. No POW is known to have escaped and successfully returned to Japan.
At the end of the war, the Japanese POWs in Allied hands that were not accused of war crimes were returned to Japan. The Japanese in Soviet hands were held in Siberian camps and not returned for years. As late as 2006 Ishinosuke Uwano said he was a former Imperial Japanese Army soldier.
Some "holdouts" refused to surrneder after the war. On some islands, Japanese and Americans fought to the death after the surrender, with casualties on both sides. The last Japanese soldier surrendered in 1980, after thirty-five years. Some Japanese believe that there are still abandoned warriors living in the islands of the South Pacfiic.